Defenders Magazine

Winter 2015

Volume 89, Issue 4


Polar bears, © Joan Cambray

In 1773, King George III of England appointed naval officer Constantine John Phipps to command an Arctic expedition to search for a passage to the Pacific Ocean. Instead, on the ice fields near Spitsbergen (now Svalbard), Norway, Phipps found polar bears. The explorer was the first to describe the bears as a distinct species, Ursus maritimus. Were he to undertake the journey today, Phipps would spot polar bears not on sea ice but wandering along rocky shorelines, searching for frozen water. For polar bears—marine mammals and apex predators of arctic realms in Norway, Canada, Greenland, Russia and Alaska—everything begins and ends with ice, or more to the point, with the ice edge. For the bears, that edge is the thin line between life and death. If sea ice continues to melt at its current rate, scientists believe two-thirds of the world’s 20,000 to 25,000 polar bears could be gone by 2050. Sea ice is vital to polar bears because the surface provides the platform on which bears can travel and from which they are able to hunt for their choice prey, ringed seals. Found in arctic waters on ice floes and pack ice, ringed seals—also known as ice seals—scratch away at the ice with clawed flippers, maintaining open breathing holes and allowing them to live where other seals can’t.


If past strong anti-wildlife conservation efforts and horrible voting records are any indication, we should expect the new wave of Senate leaders will pursue a radical and sweeping assault on America’s wildlife and public lands.
Bluebird, ©‎ Sarah Stierch (Flickr)
As birds and other small wildlife look for shelter, build nests and try to escape predators, sometimes they enter human-made places that are anything but the safe havens they seek.
Sage-Grouse, Photo: USFWS Pacific Southwest Region
Save the sage-grouse, save the West
Though they look like a more exotic version of your friendly tabby, ocelots possess the fierceness and tenacity of much larger wild felines.