This analysis reveals that strict national protections for Appendix I-listed species (particularly sawfishes and mobulid rays) are still lacking in many CMS Party Range States. Specifically, only 28% of CMS Parties have met these obligations. An additional 33% of Parties had protections in place for some but not all Appendix I species in their waters or had otherwise inadequate protections. Many of these protections, particularly with respect to sawfishes, were in place before the species were listed.